History of Games (part 2)

While some early '80s games were simple clones of existing arcade titles, the relatively low publishing costs for personal computer games allowed for new, bold, unique games. The Golden age of video arcade games reached its zenith in the 1980s. The age brought with it many technically innovative and genre-defining games developed and released in the first few years of the decade. For example (Donkey Kong (1981), an arcade game created by Nintendo's Shigeru Miyamoto, was the first game that allowed players to jump over obstacles and across gaps, making it the first true platformer. This game also introduced Mario, an icon of the genre. Mario Bros. (1983), developed by Shigeru Miyamoto, offered two-player simultaneous cooperative play and laid the groundwork for two-player cooperative platformers .To continue the list the decade brought about Adventure games, Fighting games, First person Shooters such as Metroid (1986) was the earliest game to fuse platform game fundamentals with elements of action-adventure games, alongside elements of RPGs. These elements include the ability to explore an area freely, with access to new areas controlled by either the gaining of new abilities or through the use of inventory items. Another influential game released at this time was Battlezone (1980), used wireframe vector graphics to create the first true three-dimensional game world.  Pole Position (1982), by Namco, used sprite-based, pseudo-3D graphics when it refined the "rear-view racer format" where the player’s view is behind and above the vehicle, looking forward along the road with the horizon in sight. The style would remain in wide use even after true 3D graphics became standard for racing games. Sweet Home (1989) introduced many of the modern staples of the survival horror genre.. Developed by Capcom, the game would become an influence upon their later release Resident Evil (1996), making use of its mansion setting and my favourite "opening door" load screen.
Following the success of the Apple II and Commodore PET in the late 1970's a series of cheaper and incompatible rivals emerged in the early 1980's These rivals helped to catalyze both the Home Computer and Games markets, by raising awareness of computing and gaming through their competing advertising campaigns. At the end of 1983, the industry experienced losses more severe than the 1977 crash. This was the "crash" of the video game industry, as well as the bankruptcy of several companies that produced North American home computers and video game consoles from late 1983 to early 1984. It brought an end to what is considered to be the second generation of console video gaming. Causes of the crash include the production of poorly designed games for the Atari 2600 that suffered due to extremely tight deadlines. It was discovered that more Pac-Man cartridges were manufactured than there were systems sold. In 1984, the computer gaming market took over from the console market following the crash of that year; computers offered equal gaming ability and since their simple design allowed games to take complete command of the hardware after power-on, they were nearly as simple to start playing with as consoles.
The UK was in prime position to rise to prominence in the gaming computers market in the late 1980s for various reasons. Personal computer users in the UK were offered a smooth scale of power versus price. Developers and publishers were also in close enough proximity to offer each other support. Moreover the NES, though outselling all the other home consoles, made much less of an impact than it did in the United States due to the enormous popularity of personal computers here. In 1985, the North American video game console market was revived with Nintendo’s release of its 8-bit console, the Famicom, known as Nintendo Entertainment System (NES). It was bundled with Super Mario Bros. and instantly became a success. Other milestone games of the era include Rare's Nintendo 64 title GoldenEye 007 (1997), which was critically acclaimed for bringing innovation as being the first major first-person shooter that was exclusive to a console, and for pioneering certain features that became staples of the genre, such as scopes, headshots, and objective-based missions. The NES dominated the North American and the Japanese market until the rise of the next generation of consoles in the early 1990s. Other markets were not as heavily dominated, allowing other consoles to find an audience like the Sega Master System in Europe. In the new consoles, the gamepad or joypad, took over. The gamepad design of an 8 direction Directional-pad with 2 or more action buttons became the standard. This generation ended with the discontinuation of the NES in 1995.
In 1994, three new consoles were released in Japan: the Sega Saturn, the PlayStation, and the PC-FX, the Saturn and the PlayStation later seeing release in North America in 1995. The PlayStation quickly outsold all of its competitors, with the exception of the aging Super Nintendo Entertainment System, which still had the support of many major game companies. Also in 1996 Capcom released Resident Evil, the first actual survival horror game. It was a huge success selling over 2 million copies and is considered one of the best games on the Playstaion. By the end of this period, Sony had become the leader in the video game market leaving Sega outside of the main competition. After many delays, Nintendo released its 64-bit console, the Nintendo 64 in 1996. The consoles flagship title, Super Mario 64, became a defining title for 3D platformer games. The N64 achieved huge success in North America and Europe, though it never surpassed PlayStation's sales or was as popular in Japan. This generation ended with the PlayStation discontinuation in March 2006.